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Vietnam Profile

Post time:2019-11-12 13:09:36
Official name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam)
 
Land area: 119,719 sq mi (310,070 sq km)
 
Total area: 127,881 sq mi (331,210 sq km)
 
President: Nguyễn Phú Trọng (Since 2018)
 
Prime Minister: Nguyễn Xuân Phúc (Since 2016)
 
Capital: Hanoi, 1.064 million (2018)
 
Other large cities: Ho Chi Minh City 8.145 million; Da Nang 1.444 million; Hai Phong 1.219 million; Can Tho 1.175 million; Haiphong 1.075 million (2018)
 
Currency: Vietnamese dong
 
National Holiday: Multiple. National Day (9/2) celebrates Vietnamese independence, while the "Day of Liberating the South for National Reunification" celebrates the unification of the country after the Vietnam War. The Vietnamese new year (Tết Nguyên Đán) is the biggest holiday.
 
Population: 96,160,163 (July 2017 est.)
 
Population Change: Growth rate: 0.93%; 15.5 births/1,000 population, 5.9 deaths/1,000 population, -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population; infant mortality rate: 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
 
Life Expectancy: 73.7 years
 
Nationality/Demonym: Vietnamese (người Việt) for the nationality, Vietnamese/Kinh (người Việt or người Kinh) for the ethnicity
 
Languages: Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
 
Ethnicity/race: Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, Hoa 1%, other 4.3% (2009 est.)
Note: There are 54 officially recognized ethnicities in Vietnam.
 
Religions: Buddhist 7.9%, Catholic 6.6%, Hoa Hao 1.7%, Cao Dai 0.9%, Protestant 0.9%, Muslim 0.1%, none 81.8% (2009 est.)
 
Literacy rate: 94.5% (2015 est.)
 
Geography
Vietnam occupies the eastern and southern part of theIndochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia, with the South China Sea along its entire coast. China is to the north and Laos and Cambodia are to the west. Long and narrow on a north-south axis, Vietnam is about twice the size of Arizona. The Mekong River delta lies in the south.
Vietnam shares borders with three neighboring countries. In order of shared border length, these are: Laos (2,161 km), China (1,297 km), and Cambodia (1,158 km).
 
International Affairs
International Disputes: Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China; establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over the sovereignty of offshore islands; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; China occupies the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending beyond as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Economic Exclusion Zone negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
 
Stateless Persons: stateless persons: 29,522 (2017)
Note: Vietnam's stateless ethnic Chinese Cambodian population dates to the 1970s when thousands of Cambodians fled to Vietnam to escape the Khmer Rouge and were no longer recognized as Cambodian citizens; Vietnamese women who gave up their citizenship to marry foreign men have found themselves stateless after divorcing and returning home to Vietnam; the government addressed this problem in 2009, and Vietnamese women are beginning to reclaim their citizenship
Illicit Drugs: Minor producer of opium poppy; probable minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin; government continues to face domestic opium/heroin/methamphetamine addiction problems despite longstanding crackdowns; enforces the death penalty for drug trafficking
 
Economy
Vietnam is a densely populated developing country that has been transitioning since 1986 from the rigidities of a centrally planned, highly agrarian economy to a more industrial and market based economy, and it has raised incomes substantially. Vietnam exceeded its 2017 GDP growth target of 6.7% with growth of 6.8%, primarily due to unexpected increases in domestic demand, and strong manufacturing exports.
Vietnam has a young population, stable political system, commitment to sustainable growth, relatively low inflation, stable currency, strong FDI inflows, and strong manufacturing sector. In addition, the country is committed to continuing its global economic integration. Vietnam joined the WTO in January 2007 and concluded several free trade agreements in 2015-16, including the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (which the EU has not yet ratified), the Korean Free Trade Agreement, and the Eurasian Economic Union Free Trade Agreement. In 2017, Vietnam successfully chaired the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Conference with its key priorities including inclusive growth, innovation, strengthening small and medium enterprises, food security, and climate change. Seeking to diversify its opportunities, Vietnam also signed the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for the Transpacific Partnership in 2018 and continued to pursue the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership.
To continue its trajectory of strong economic growth, the government acknowledges the need to spark a �second wave’ of reforms, including reforming state-owned-enterprises, reducing red tape, increasing business sector transparency, reducing the level of non-performing loans in the banking sector, and increasing financial sector transparency. Vietnam’s public debt to GDP ratio is nearing the government mandated ceiling of 65%.
In 2016, Vietnam cancelled its civilian nuclear energy development program, citing public concerns about safety and the high cost of the program; it faces growing pressure on energy infrastructure. Overall, the country’s infrastructure fails to meet the needs of an expanding middle class. Vietnam has demonstrated a commitment to sustainable growth over the last several years, but despite the recent speed-up in economic growth the government remains cautious about the risk of external shocks.
 
Overview
GDP/PPP: $647.4 billion (2017 est.)
Growth Rate: 6.8% (2017 est.)
Inflation: 3.5% (2017 est.)
Government Revenues: 22% of GDP (2017 est.)
Public Debt: 58.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
 
Labor Force
Working Population: 54.8 million (2017 est.)
Employment by Occupation: Agriculture: 15.3%, Industry: 33.3%, Services: 41.3% (2016 est.)
Unemployment: 2.2% (2017 est.)
Population Below the Poverty Line: 8% (2017 est.)
 
Trade
Total Exports: $214 billion (2017 est.)
Major Exports: Clothes, shoes, electronics, seafood, crude oil, rice, coffee, wooden products, machinery
Export Partners: US 20.1%, China 14.5%, Japan 8%, South Korea 6.8% (2017)
 
Total Imports: $211.1 billion (2017 est.)
Major Imports: Machinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and shoe industries, electronics, plastics, automobiles
Import Partners: China 25.8%, South Korea 20.5%, Japan 7.8%, Thailand 4.9% (2017)
 
Products
Agricultural Products: Rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; pork; poultry; seafood
Major Industries: Food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones
 
Resources
Natural Resources: Phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower, arable land.
Land Use: Agricultural land: 34.8% (arable land 20.6%; permanent crops 12.1%; permanent pasture 2.1%), Forest: 45%, Other: 20.2% (2011 est.)
 
Communications
Telephones
Fixed Lines: 5,598,017, 6 per 100 residents (2016 est.)
Cell Phones: 120,600,235, 125 per 100 residents, (2016 est.)
International Country Code: 84
 
Internet
Internet Country Code: .vn
Internet Users: 49,741,000, 52.7% (2016 est.)
 
Broadcast Media
Government controls all broadcast media exercising oversight through the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC); government-controlled national TV provider, Vietnam Television (VTV), operates a network of several channels with regional broadcasting centers; programming is relayed nationwide via a network of provincial and municipal TV stations; law limits access to satellite TV but many households are able to access foreign programming via home satellite equipment; government-controlled Voice of Vietnam, the national radio broadcaster, broadcasts on several channels and is repeated on AM, FM, and shortwave stations throughout Vietnam (2018).
 
Transportation Infrastructure
Airports
Total Airports: 45 (2013)
With Paved Runways: 38
With Unpaved Runways: 7
Registered Air Carriers: 4
Registered Aircraft: 140
Annual Passengers: 29,944,771
 
Railways
Total: 2,600 km
Standard Gauge: 178 km (1.435-m gauge); 253 km (mixed gauge)
Narrow Gauge: 2,169 km (1.000-m gauge) (2014)
 
Roads
Total: 195,468 km
Paved: 148,338 km
Unpaved: 47,130 km (2013)
 
Waterways
Total: 47,130 km (30,831 km weight under 50 tons) (2011)
Ports and Terminals:
 
Major Seaport(s): Cam Pha Port, Da Nang, Haiphong, Phu My, Quy Nhon
River Port(s): Ho Chi Minh (Mekong)
Container Port(s) (TEUs): Saigon (6,556,000), Saigon New Port (5,026,000) (2015)
 
Industry  
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